Hormonal contraceptives include https://pillintrip.com/medicine/oralcon the use of estrogen and progestin analogues to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The contraceptive effect is mediated by a negative feedback in the hypothalamus, which eventually leads to a decrease in the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland.
Ovulation cannot occur without sufficient LH in the body. Low levels of progestin reduce the likelihood of oocyte implantation by changing the structure of cervical mucus, reducing the mobility of the fallopian tubes and the proliferation of the endometrium. Today, taking hormonal contraceptives is the most common form of protection.
Types of hormonal contraceptives
The most well-known are oral medications in the form of pills, but there are also other types of means, designed to change the hormonal background in the body. Among them:
patches – patches with specialized impregnation;
Injections – injections to prevent fertilization of the egg;
vaginal rings and intrauterine coils;
Implants – hormonal contraceptives that are installed by a doctor in a gynecological office.
In combined monophasic oral contraceptives, the dose of estrogen and progestin remains constant, while in multiphase preparations it varies during one cycle.
Reduced doses of multiphase OCs mitigate some side effects. These include unpleasant symptoms such as breast soreness, nausea, bloating, bleeding, and conditions such as venous thromboembolism. Because of the complications associated with taking OCs, their use is contraindicated in patients with significant symptoms of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and a history of stroke.